Adds a specified increment to the numeric value of a variable.
||The variable whose value is to be incremented. It can specify a local variable, a process-private global, or a global variable and can be either subscripted or unsubscripted. The variable need not be defined. If the variable is not defined, or is set to the null string (""), $INCREMENT treats it as having an initial value of zero and increments accordingly. A literal value cannot be specified here. You cannot specify a simple object property reference as variable; you can specify a multidimensional property reference as variable with the syntax obj.property.
The numeric increment you want to add to variable
. The value can be a number (integer or non-integer, positive or negative), a string containing a number, or any expression which evaluates to a number. Leading and trailing blanks and multiple signs are evaluated. A string is evaluated until the first nonnumeric character is encountered. The null string ("") is evaluated as zero.
If you do not specify num
for the second argument, Caché defaults to incrementing variable
resets the value of a variable by adding a specified increment to the existing value of the variable and returning the incremented value. This is shown in the following example:
WRITE !,result /* result is 8 (a+1) */
WRITE !,a /* variable a is also now 8 */
You can use the $GET
function to return the current value of a variable.
performs this increment as an atomic operation, which does not require the use of the LOCK
Caché does not
restore the original, non-incremented value if $INCREMENT
is in a transaction that is rolled back.
The variable whose data value is to be incremented. It must be a variable, it cannot be a literal. The variable does not need to be defined. $INCREMENT
defines an undefined variable, setting its value to num
(1, by default).
cannot increment special variables
, even those that can be modified using SET
. Attempting to increment a special variable results in a <SYNTAX> error.
The amount to increment (or decrement) by. The num
parameter can be a positive number, incrementing the value of variable
, or a negative number, decrementing the value of variable
. It can be an integer or a fractional number. num
can be zero (no increment). A numeric string is treated as a number. An empty string ("") or a non-numeric string is treated as an increment of zero. If you do not specify an increment, Caché uses the default increment of one (1).
can be used as alternatives, or can be used in combination with each other. $SEQUENCE
is intended specifically for integer increment operations involving multiple simultaneous processes. $INCREMENT
is a more general increment/decrement function.
increments global variables. $INCREMENT
increments local variables, global variables, or process-private globals.
increments an integer by 1. $INCREMENT
increments or decrements any numeric value by any specified numeric value.
can allocate a range of increments to a process. $INCREMENT
allocates only a single increment.
$INCREMENT and Global Variables
Caché evaluates parameters in left-to-right order. If num
(the amount to increment) is a subscripted global, Caché uses this global reference to set the naked indicator, affecting all subsequent naked global references.
is generally used for incrementing a variable containing a numeric value. However, it does accept a variable
containing a string. The following rules apply when using $INCREMENT
on a string:
A null string ("") is treated as having a value of zero.
A numeric string ("123" or "+0012.30") is treated as having that numeric value. The string is converted to canonical form: leading and trailing zeros and the plus sign are removed.
A mixed numeric/nonnumeric string ("12AB" or "1,000") is treated as the numeric value up to the first nonnumeric character and then truncated at that point. (Note that a comma is a nonnumeric character.) The resulting numeric substring is converted to canonical form: leading and trailing zeros and the plus sign are removed.
A nonnumeric string ("ABC" or "$12") is treated as having a value of zero.
Scientific notation conversion is performed. For example, if strvar
treats it as having a value of 300.
Arithmetic operations are not performed. For example, if strvar
will truncate the string at the plus sign (treating it as a nonnumeric character) and increment strvar
Multiple uses of a string variable in a single $INCREMENT
statement should be avoided. For example, avoid concatenating a string variable to the increment of that variable: strvar_$INCREMENT(strvar)
. This returns unpredictable results.
cannot increment variable
, it issues a <MAXINCREMENT> error. This only occurs when the num
increment value is extremely small, and/or the variable
value is extremely large.
An increment by zero (num
=0) always returns the original number, regardless of its size. It does not issue a <MAXINCREMENT> error.
<MAXINCREMENT> occurs when the numeric types of the parameters differ and the resulting type conversion and rounding would result in no increment. If you use $INCREMENT
on a very large number, the default increment of 1 (or some other small positive or negative value of num
) is too small to be significant. Similarly, if you specify a very small fractional num
value, its value is too small to be significant. Rather than returning the original variable
number without incrementing it, $INCREMENT
generates a <MAXINCREMENT> error.
In the following example, 1.2E18 is a number that can be incremented or decremented by 1; 1.2E20 is a number that is too large to be incremented or decremented by 1. The first three $INCREMENT
functions successfully increment or decrement the number 1.2E18. The fourth and fifth $INCREMENT
functions increment by zero, and so always return the original number unchanged, regardless of the size of the original number. The sixth and seventh $INCREMENT
functions provide a num
increment sufficiently large to successfully increment or decrement the number 1.2E20. The eighth $INCREMENT
function attempts to increment 1.2E20 by 1, and thus generates a <MAXINCREMENT> error.
WRITE "E18 :",x,!
WRITE "E18+1 :",$INCREMENT(x),!
WRITE "E18+4 :",$INCREMENT(x,4),!
WRITE "E18-6 :",$INCREMENT(x,-6),!
WRITE "E18+0 :",$INCREMENT(x,0),!
WRITE "E20 :",y,!
WRITE "E20+0 :",$INCREMENT(y,0),!
WRITE "E20+1 :",$INCREMENT(y),!
Locking and Simultaneous Global Increments
do not perform a lock operation when they increment variable
nor does using the LOCK
command on variable
from incrementing or decrementing its value. For example, suppose process 1 executes a lock on ^COUNTER:
Then suppose, process 2 increments ^COUNTER:
Process 2 is not prevented from incrementing ^COUNTER by the lock held by process 1.
The two processes are not guaranteed their own unique ^COUNTER values unless both are using $INCREMENT
$INCREMENT and Transaction Processing
The common usage for $INCREMENT
is to increment a counter before adding a new entry to a database. $INCREMENT
provides a way to do this very quickly, avoiding the use of the LOCK
The trade off for this is that the counter is not
locked. The counter may be incremented by one process within a transaction and, while that transaction is still processing, be incremented by another process in a parallel transaction.
In the event either transaction (or any other transaction that uses $INCREMENT
) must be rolled back (with the TROLLBACK
command), counter increments are ignored. The counter variables are not decremented since it is not clear whether the resulting counter value would be valid. In all likelihood, such a rollback would be disastrous for other transactions.
The following example increments the value of myvar
. Note that myvar
does not have to be a prior defined variable:
SET VAL=$INCREMENT(myvar,n) ; returns 4
SET VAL=$INCREMENT(myvar,n) ; returns 8
SET VAL=$INCREMENT(myvar,n) ; returns 12
The following example adds incremental values to the process-private variable ^||xyz using $INCREMENT
. The one-argument form of $INCREMENT
increments by 1; the two-argument form increments by the value specified in the second argument. In this case, the second argument is a non-integer value.
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(^||xyz) ; returns 1
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(^||xyz) ; returns 2
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(^||xyz) ; returns 3
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(^||xyz,3.14) ; returns 6.14
The following example shows the effects of incrementing by zero (0) and incrementing by a negative number:
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(xyz,0) ; initialized as zero
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(xyz,0) ; still zero
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(xyz) ; increments by 1 (default)
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(xyz) ; increments by 1 (=2)
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(xyz,-1) ; decrements by -1 (=1)
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(xyz,-1) ; decrements by -1 (=0)
WRITE !,$INCREMENT(xyz,-1) ; decrements by -1 (=-1)
The following example shows the effects of incrementing using mixed (numeric and nonnumeric) num
strings and the null string:
; null string initializes to 0
; increments by 2
; null string increments by 0 (xyz=2)
; increments by 3 (rest of string ignored)
; nonnumeric string evaluates as zero (xyz=5)
; increments by 100 (scientific notation)